I was using an array for DelM because that was the only was I could solve the equation, within the for loop, symbolically (using a symbolic variable). Suggested values are t 2 [0;10] and 0. The recursive call to range doesn't happen as the very last thing. Since imported libraries are not Global variables, you must import the libraries at the beginning of all scripts or functions that use OpenSim classes. could be written directly in matlab using two for loops (as shown in Fig. However, this would execute much slower because the matlab language is interpreted, while built-in functions such as filter are pre-compiled C modules. matlab Newsgroup [email protected] For more information on those topics see one of our tutorials on vectors (Introduction to Vectors in Matlab), matrices (Introduction to Matrices in Matlab), vector operations (Vector Functions), loops (Loops), plotting (Plotting), executable files (Executable Files), or subroutines (Subroutines). Toggle Main Navigation I am quite new to matlab so still have to get. As I said, Matlab is not purely an interpreted language. Examples of MATLAB functions Some very short, simple functions: square. For this code, the author has used -10000 as the reassigned value. Functions are supported in scripts in R2016b or later. How do we decide which one to use ?. It should start at some value, xstart, stop at xstop and create a vector that contains N values evenly spaced from xstart to xstop. Python For Loop Tutorial With Examples and Range/Xrange Functions. The Input To The Function Is A Matrix Of Any Dimension. I am testing the model sensitivity to the parameter, and I would eventually like to vary two variables using another FOR loop. The for statement in Python differs a bit from what you may be used to in C or Pascal. Function functions. The MATLAB command pzmap will plot the poles (and zeros) of a given transfer function as shown below. Since part (b) requires that you create a script or other function that calls the function from part (a), you should choose the first option. I want the outside loop to repeat from 1:5. for loops Programs for numerical simulation often involve repeating a set of commands many times. Can you explain me the working of buffers in any of these programming languages?. A nested loop is a loop that occurs within another loop, structurally similar to nested if statements. Also note how by typing a percent sign ( % ) before text in the code, MATLAB does not interpret this text as code. while loop in which it appears, skipping any remaining statements in the body of the loop. Description. m Calculates the cube of a number. The material covers key programming constructs (scripts, functions, branches, loops, etc. Functions This is a simple example of how nested functions can simplify the writing of callback functions for writing continuously-running applications. 1 Example- Sum Primes Let's say we wanted to sum all 1, 2, and 3 digit prime numbers. If you are trying to declare or write your own loops, you need to make sure that the loops are written as scripts and not directly in the Command Window. Nested for loop statement. Subfunctions (or private functions) are useful when users don't need these directly. (Originally posted on Doug's MATLAB Video Tutorials blog. A nested loop is a loop within a loop, an inner loop within the body of an outer one. And this tutorial does exactly that. However, to nest any function in a program file, all functions in that file must use an end statement. 0 allows you to create and manipulate N-dimensional arrays. Toggle Main Navigation. Compilers put considerable effort into speeding up these constructs. This inner for-loop is said to be nested in the outer for-loop. MATLAB Functions, Keywords, and Operators for, end. The for statement in Python differs a bit from what you may be used to in C or Pascal. Loops/Nested You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any language you may know. The AVERAGE and SUM functions are nested within the IF function. At each iteration, MATLAB does everything between the "for" and "end" statements in the loop. Asked by Michele. Using nested for loop to create a 3D matrix ?. Pre-allocation is addressed in the second half of the video. The for loop version takes about 63 us, i. As an example, below is the profile for a random network of 50 nodes. Tabstops can be also nested, which allows you typically to delete or overwrite a complex placeholder or modify nested tabstops. In order to motivate the DSP people out there, I am showing below how one can apply a window and scale factors on a pre-framed signal using no loops and minimal memory. script-files can call function files and execute them. com Product enhancement suggestions. if s is 3 and t is 2, then. I know what is nested for loops but in this case ,I dunno hw to apply it. You can use the zeros function to create a zero-filled vector of the right size. Let’s derive an example class in three steps. How to Contact The MathWorks: www. Write a MATLAB program for compute the value of following function using normal method, avoid inner loop, avoid both loop Code:. Examples The example below shows a continue loop that counts the lines of code in the file, magic. MatLab did not like this as y had been reserved as the name of the function in the first line of the program. Use return in this context instead. More elegant approaches would reassign the value to -1/eps or –Inf. Making a matrix in a loop in MATLAB » Stuart’s MATLAB Videos - MATLAB & Simulink. MATLAB is a higher level programming language that has various uses in everyday problems. The body of a parfor-loop cannot contain an spmd statement, and an spmd statement cannot contain a parfor-loop. The while loop. matlab tips and tricks and page overview: I created this page as a vectorization helper but it grew to become my annotated Matlab reading cache. A matching end closes the statements. This video demonstrates how you can create a transfer function to model a linear-time invariant system. In this way it is possible to est" loops within loops. could be written directly in matlab using two for loops (as shown in Fig. It is optional to end the M-file with 'end'; doing so, however, can lead to complications if you have conditionals or loops in your code, or if you're planning on using multiple functions in the same file (see nested functions for details on this). MATLAB in Statistics Assignment Help, Example of nested functions, Example of Nested functions: For illustration, the function below computes and returns the volume of a cube. Python includes 2 types of looping statements (For, While, Nested loops) which help us to execute certain statements or block of code repeatedly. This style of subfunction allows you to share the workspace of the calling function without explicitly passing topics in MATLAB than I tend to. What I see as a problem, is that I cannot store all y values for all times t and all values of p in a matrix because I cannot use the variable t before the loop. Run the program and verify that the numbers from 1 to 10 in steps of 0. MATLAB Programming - Loop Control Part 2 1. for-Loop is one of the most common phrases in MATLAB and other programming languages. The code, runs extremely slow in Matlab ( fortran executes the whole code in 15 min, matlab needs a couple of hours). Determine the sizes and value(s) of the variables k. Why For Loops? Like all loops, "for loops" execute blocks of code over and over again. In nested loops, break exits only from the loop in which it occurs. Nesting Loops in Loops. Learn more about matlab, nested for loop. Functions must be at the end of the file. Choose a web site to get translated content where available and see local events and offers. Programs commonly spend most of their time in tight loops such as for-loops. Examples The example below shows a continue loop that counts the lines of code in the file, magic. matlab tips and tricks and page overview: I created this page as a vectorization helper but it grew to become my annotated Matlab reading cache. Note again that MATLAB doesn't require you to deal with matrices as a. Using nested for loop to create a 3D matrix ?. How does that work? Individual columns of the matrix are assigned to the loop variable at the beginning of each iteration. Write two nested for loops to calculate the following double summation Sigma^i_i = 1 Sigma^1_j = 1 = ij Ex If s a 3 and t is 2 then summation Result is 18 (1 x 1)+(1 x 2)+(2 x 1)+(2 x 2)+(3 x 1)+(3 x 2) 18 function suaaation Result = Double Sua(s, t) % s: First summation liait (i = 1 to s) % t: Second summation limite (j = 1 to t) summationResult = 0; % Write two nested for loops to calculate. As a result many Matlab programmers never use them. We'll learn to use nested for, while and do-while loops in a program. The MATLAB iteration structure (for-loop) repeats a group of statements a fixed, predetermined number of times. It includes the built-in MATLAB math functions and many of the math functions that are implemented as MATLAB M-files. Dot notation for operations on vectors 9. In Matlab a common programming construction is a if or a switch statement. As a result many Matlab programmers never use them. The code, runs extremely slow in Matlab ( fortran executes the whole code in 15 min, matlab needs a couple of hours). Posters in this thread have provided very helpful numpy and list comprehension solutions; however, I'd like to improve my more basic nested loop solution solely for the sake of becoming better with basic Python tasks (please do let me know if I should have posted this in the prior thread instead of starting a new semi-duplicateapologies if. While loop variable i iterates over rows, loop variable j iterates over every column within the current row. 1 Some basics 7. For Loop and While Loop are explained in detail with examples in this tutorial. Jul 01, 2016 · Using stateflow is an easier alternative if you do not wish to use the function block wherein you can write an m-script for the same. In this loop below, for is the beginning of the loop and end define its end. I'm terribly sorry if this seems like a very basic question (i'm just beginning to learn MATLAB). As far as I know the matlab for-loop works similar to the for_each-loop that can be seen in many programming languages these days, or maybe the range-for in c++11. This screencasts gives an example of a nested FOR loop in a MATLAB program and how to create it based on a written algorithm. Python For Loop Tutorial With Examples and Range/Xrange Functions. Functions are the basis of all scripting and programming languages. MATLAB Central. function main2 nestfun2 function nestfun2 x = 5; end x = x + 1; end Cuando las funciones primarias no utilizan una variable determinada, la variable permanece local en la función anidada. Wiki User 12/10/2010. statements The statements of code to execute each pass through the loop. Toggle Main Navigation. Control passes to the statement that follows the end of that loop. I'm new to the forum and in need of some help with a matlab program. Some miscellaneous commands. Any HTML or PHP code in the Loop will be processed on each post. MATLAB allows to use one loop inside another loop. Determine the sizes and value(s) of the variables k. In Matlab, the loop must be completed by the word end. They are also used to print out the matrix using a 2 dimensional array and a lot of other patterns like pyramid of numbers etc. The FOR LOOP statement ends when its index reaches a specified value, or when a statement inside the loop transfers control outside the loop or raises an exception. The way I read the question is that this program needs to be able to solve any arbitrary matrix, which means that it can have x rows and y columns. ), cell arrays, GUIs, and much more. I want to print out : 1. Modelling and control summaries by Anthony Rossiter USE OF MATLAB 3 – closed-loop transfer functions OVERVIEW: These notes gives a very narrow view of MATLAB and how to do a limited number of things. The authors of Octave consider the nested function scoping rules of Matlab to be more problems than they are worth as they introduce difficult to find bugs as inadvertently modifying a variable in a nested function that is also used in the parent is particularly easy for those not attentive to detail. The for loop may enclose multiple Matlab statements, The number of times that enclosed statements get executed is equal to the length of the loop index array, The loop index variable may be used by the enclosed statements, One for loop may be nested inside of one another. Python for loop example using range() function Here we are using range() function to calculate and display the sum of first 5 natural numbers. Anyways, can someone please show me a simple example of a while loop nested within a for loop? I understand the two loops separately but I can't figure out how to apply them together. The arguments RowCount and ColumnCount represent the number of iterations for the outer and inner loops, respectively. You can view the MATLAB code for these functions using the statement: type function_name You can extend the capabilities of the Image Processing Toolbox by writing your own M-files, or by using the toolbox in combination with with other toolboxes, such as the Signal Processing Toolbox and the Wavelet Toolbox. These routines are useful for someone who wants to start hands-on work with networks fairly quickly, explore simple graph statistics, distributions, simple visualization and compute common network theory metrics. Function calls are not visualized. MATLAB Slides 17-19 Nested Loops MATLAB Slides 17-19 Nested Loops Examples 1 MATLAB Slides 17-19 Nested Loops Examples 2 MATLAB Quiz 12 Nested Loops MATLAB Quiz 12 Nested Loops Solution MATLAB Slides 20-26 While Loops MATLAB Slide 20-26 While Loop Examples MATLAB Quiz 13 While Loop. Functions can be incredibly long or complex. electricalenggtutorial. Plot in a loop in matlab MATLAB Matlab: Plotting loops, arrays. As a general rule, matlab programs should avoid iterating over individual samples whenever possible. script-files can call function files and execute them. Two very useful commands are sum which calculates the sum of the elements in a vector, and prod which calculates the product of the elements in a vector. I don't personaly consider this slow (and I am known to be demanding on calculating speed). The for loop allows us to repeat certain commands. A tutorial on loops in R that looks at the constructs available in R for looping. The name of the file must match the name of the first function in the file. Store result of three nested for loops. The syntax for a nested for loop statement in MATLAB is as follows − for m = 1:j for n = 1:k ; end end The syntax for a nested while loop statement in MATLAB is as follows −. Learn more about matlab, nested for loop. Basic program to show use of nested for Loops. The example has two nested for-loops, and therefore you can replace only one for-loop with a parfor-loop. The second issue is that running the two nested for loops to solve for model uses the first time point for the first iteration and then the second time point for all other iteration (I believe). Summing the Integers – Demonstrates use of a for loop: for loop: A04B : Nested for loops: for loop: A05 : Taylor Series – Use for loop to add up the terms in a Taylor series expansion of cos(x) for loop : A06 : Making Loops Go Faster – Tricks to increase computation speed including preallocating arrays and using built-in Matlab functions. Now we come to the most important reason to use inner functions. Nested For Loop In MATLAB Nested For Loop Example. Hashim 8,663 views. Since part (b) requires that you create a script or other function that calls the function from part (a), you should choose the first option. - Switch – case commands - Nested lops - break command - continue command 2 e l e c t r i c a l e n g g t u t o r i a l. All kinds of loops can be nested. Students learn how to write clean, efficient, and well-documented programs, while gaining an understanding of the many practical functions of MATLAB®. Jul 16, 2017 · Functions can be incredibly long or complex. The syntax of nested while loop is shown below. This R tutorial on loops will look into the constructs available in R for looping, when the constructs should be used, and how to make use of alternatives, such as R’s vectorization feature, to perform your. For-loops are typically used when the number of iterations is known before entering the loop. It does this for one or more special input values for which the function can be evaluated without recursion. In the following examples we will see how this is implemented in Matlab, but nevertheless how good programmers we are, some mistakes will happen. It seems to me like I will need nested for loops, which we haven't learned yet. Maximum level of nesting allowed in C++ is 256. In this post, we’ll show you how to parallelize your code in a variety of languages to utilize multiple cores. However, it can call a nested function by a function handle. The functions are not written by myself, however, they work fine in Maltab and Octave. How to Contact The MathWorks: www. In the above example, that's a single calculation - but it doesn't have to be. It will only terminate one loop (in the case of nested loop, the innermost one it is in) and will normally be protected by an if statement (otherwise the loop is silly). In Matlab a common programming construction is a if or a switch statement. The MatLab function parallel() can be used to determine the overall transfer function of this system. You can add a controller, and compute the closed-loop transfer function. Examples of MATLAB functions Some very short, simple functions: square. You can use the zeros function to create a zero-filled vector of the right size. Learn more about homework, doit4me, no attempt. This is generally more efficient and also results in briefer code. Preallocate your arrays when possible MATLAB comes with a huge library of in-built functions, use them when necessary Avoid using your own functions, MATLAB's functions are more likely to be efficient than yours. Below you can find the function that I created. How to define variables for nested functions. Note: if the name of the first function declared in the m-file does not match the file name, it will execute when called by the file name, not the name after the function keyword. You will need to enter the editor!!!!. In many cases a for-loop can be replaced by an operation on a vector. If a loop exists inside the body of another loop, it's called nested loop. Nested functions are great for passing lots of information between functions conveniently. I am trying to do the same thing 3 different ways. H(s) = 72x(s+2)/s(s+50)(s+250)(s+1000)(s 2 + 2. The Nested Loops Matlab also allows to use one loop inside another loop. For further MRI processing functions, see the matlab image processing toolbox, the SPMtoolbox for matlab, and the FSLtools (in c/c++ with source code available). GOTOs makes it much harder until impossible to determine the structure and you e. The AVERAGE and SUM functions are nested within the IF function. They directly replace the functions in Matlab, so no program modification is required. Some basic tips on speeding up matlab code and on exploiting vectorisation are mentioned in the Optimisation section of our matlab page. In this loop below, for is the beginning of the loop and end define its end. MATLAB also has its own binary file type that uses the extension. Generate to iterate over a nested loop. Write a MATLAB program for compute the value of following function using normal method, avoid inner loop, avoid both loop Code:. However, if you do not want to use VBA, you can get around this limitation by creating a defined name that refers to part of the formula. The body of a parfor-loop cannot contain an spmd statement, and an spmd statement cannot contain a parfor-loop. In nested loops,. We first go through the basics needed to begin the start of your programming journey. Calculate as a function of. Well you can have, as we mentioned, any MATLAB command, in the body of the for-loop, and so we have, a for-loop in the body of this for-loop. You cannot define a nested function inside any of the MATLAB ® program control statements, such as if/elseif/else, switch/case, for, while, or try/catch. 1) input function in Matlab 2) for loop in Matlab - This website has a very good explanation of for loops 3) fprintf 4) function in Matlab 5) colon operator, Matlab colon operator 6) Transpose of a matrix in matlab, without using the inbuilt transpose 7) nested for loops. WHY USE MATLAB? Closed-loop transfer functions can be tedious to. The code, runs extremely slow in Matlab ( fortran executes the whole code in 15 min, matlab needs a couple of hours). We know that this question is often asked as part of homework (lab) assignments, but we got so much requests that we couldn’t ignore it. I was using an array for DelM because that was the only was I could solve the equation, within the for loop, symbolically (using a symbolic variable). For example, on the first iteration, index = valArray (:,1). Write a script that does the same thing as the linspace function. However, to nest any function in a program file, all functions in that file must use an end statement. Run the program and verify that the numbers from 1 to 10 in steps of 0. The amount of space between a loop and its "end" statement does not matter. The for-Loop: How to design a for-loop. It contains the facilities for calling routines from MatLab, for reading and writing Mat files and calling Matlab as a computational engine. In general students need to become effective independent learners of MATLAB. A function is like any other script file, except it is saved as a function. plots income on the top half of the window and outgo on the bottom half. I know what is nested for loops but in this case ,I dunno hw to apply it. The for loop version takes about 63 us, i. The nested loops cycle like an odometer with the rightmost element advancing on every iteration. MATLAB Lesson 5/18 nested while for end (loops) ماتلاب شرح برمجة كتابة دورات و حلقات تكرارية عربى - Duration: 6:39. In many cases a for-loop can be replaced by an operation on a vector. If Command Extensions are disabled, the FOR command will only support the basic syntax with no enhanced variables: FOR %%parameter IN (set) DO command [command-parameters]. for loops Programs for numerical simulation often involve repeating a set of commands many times. If MATLAB doesn't recognize the quadl command, make sure that you have typed it correctly. Jun 10, 2017 · how to use xlswrite function in the for loop ,allowing for loop to write data into excel sheet in every iteration of the for loop. Then, you can produce a 7x7 matrix simply by typing banded_matrix(7) in your main block of code. Concept of Creating Animation in MATLAB. function mArr = preAllocFcn(x,y) for m = 1:x for n = 1:y mArr(m,n) = 0; end end end. Perl | Loops (for, foreach, while, do…while, until, Nested loops) Looping in programming languages is a feature which facilitates the execution of a set of instructions or functions repeatedly while some condition evaluates to true. The example below shows a while loop that reads the contents of the file fft. The for loop may enclose multiple Matlab statements, The number of times that enclosed statements get executed is equal to the length of the loop index array, The loop index variable may be used by the enclosed statements, One for loop may be nested inside of one another. Discover alternatives using R's vectorization feature. Consider the following loops: ch = 'abc'; m = 3; for c = ch for k = 1:m disp([c num2str(k)]) % NUM2STR converts the number stored in k to a charachter, % so it can be concataneted with the letter in c end end. Try the following example. Note again that MATLAB doesn't require you to deal with matrices as a. Three arguments are then passed to it, for the width and length of the base of cube and height also. The input to the function should be the number N, which is the number of rows and columns. either for loop or while loop or dowhile loop. Immediately exits the Function procedure in which it appears. Therefore, an outer loop is needed to increment down the rows of the table and an inner loop is needed to increment across the columns of the table. Description. Creating a For loop with fzero having multiple Learn more about for loop, fzero, random. matlab Newsgroup [email protected] Preallocating an array using a nested loop is inefficient, but is shown here for illustrative purposes. If you have trouble understanding what exactly is happening above, get a pen and a paper and try to simulate the whole script as if you were the computer — go through your loop step by step and write down the results. The code is not object-oriented, and should be easy to use, read and improve upon. However, to nest any function in a program file, all functions in that file must use an end statement. I know what is nested for loops but in this case ,I dunno hw to apply it. We can write while, dowhile, for and range based for loop in a nested loop. In many cases, there's a much faster and less wasteful way to accomplish the goal you're trying to achieve. Examples - M-File 3. and I have been trying to figure out how to use nested for loops correctly. 10 platforms. Sometimes flag variables of boolean type are needed. Nested functions are very good when there is much large data to share for reading and writing. Functions work in scripts in R2016b or later. Jun 15, 2019 · MATLAB: Write two nested for loops to calculate the following double summation: Ex. Try the following example. For each value of i the inner loop is cycled through 5 times, with the variable j taking values from 1 to 5. Keeping this slow down due to the interpretive nature of Matlab in mind, one programming construct that should be avoided at all costs is the for loop, especially nested for loops since these can make a Matlab programs run time orders of magnitude longer than may be needed. Well you can have, as we mentioned, any MATLAB command, in the body of the for-loop, and so we have, a for-loop in the body of this for-loop. The material covers key programming constructs (scripts, functions, branches, loops, etc. m ) Simplify the interfaces, with nesting. We need to define the range of the indpendent variable w before plotting the fucntion H(jw). m, but the first non-comment line must start with the word function and be of the form function output variable(s) = function name (parameters) For example, the function that computes the sine would start out function y=sin(x) and the name of the file would be sin. 1 Example- Sum Primes Let's say we wanted to sum all 1, 2, and 3 digit prime numbers. The for-Loop: How to design a for-loop. Using The Loop, WordPress processes each post to be displayed on the current page, and formats it according to how it matches specified criteria within The Loop tags. Learn more about nested for loop, for loop, nested power, nested power equation MATLAB. Functions are the basis of all scripting and programming languages. for Loops ME 352, Fall 2007 page 1/3 A Quick Introduction to Loops in Matlab Loops are used to repeat sequences of calculations. , Matlab is BAD at for loop. Put a point indicating the half life on the plot. It contains the facilities for calling routines from MatLab, for reading and writing Mat files and calling Matlab as a computational engine. Since the nested loop itself iterates 4 times, the body of the loop is executed 3*4 times, which corresponds to the number of elements in the matrix. In the case of a for loop, the commands are executed a fixed number of times, whereas in a while loop the commands are executed until some specified condition is met. pzmap(sys_cl) The above plot shows that the closed-loop system has one real pole at -1. Re: is nested for loops synthesizable @u4223374 Yes I'm actually familiar with C as well as matlab. Plot function using for loop matlab. Loops can be nested, to preform iterated task within another iterated task. The new edition gradually presents the latest MATLAB functionality in detail. This video demonstrates how you can create a transfer function to model a linear-time invariant system. It relates the value of the function at one (or more) input values to the value of the function at one (or more) other input values. The MATLAB command pzmap will plot the poles (and zeros) of a given transfer function as shown below. In nested loops, continue passes control to the next iteration of the for or while loop enclosing it. (1)using 2 nested for loops (2) replacing inner for loop with an inbuilt function and (3) replacing both for loops with an implicit expansion and a sub-function. I know the logic behind doing it, looping through squares of the picture's array of values, finding a mean value for that block, and then making that block that one color. A local function is within a function file, and all other local functions are terminated with an end statement. Writing a loop inside another loop is known as nested loop. Hopefully someone here is familiar with matlab and nested loops. I tried writing a for loop that extracts all the rows into one row:-----clc;clear. In nested while loop one or more statements are included in the body of the loop. The example has two nested for-loops, and therefore you can replace only one for-loop with a parfor-loop. Matlab's JIT accelerator can increase the speed of loops substabtially. For example, product(A, B) returns the same as ((x,y) for x in A for y in B). As is the case with for loops, placing the do on the same line as the condition test requires a semicolon. Rules and guidelines for the for loop. Functions are the basis of all scripting and programming languages. • Any functions called within the loop are MATLAB built-in functions. The syntax for a nested for loop statement in MATLAB is as follows: for m = 1:j for n = 1:k ; end end The syntax for a nested while loop statement in MATLAB is as follows: while while end end Example. This can be extremely handy! This can be extremely handy! Suppose for instance that we want to write a func- tion that integrates an interpolant for given data (see section 4. MATLAB STRUCTURE AND USE 1. m ) Simplify the interfaces, with nesting. Below is a simple program on nested loops. Troubleshooting Loops: Avoiding common mistakes with iteration. I understand for loops are not ideal for Matlab, but not sure how to avoid using them. The development of this matlab toolbox is in its infancy. Wiki User 12/10/2010. To repeat a number of statements, can be solved with a for or a while loop. Pre-allocation is addressed in the second half of the video. 45e6 and a pair of complex poles at -29. Then we enter a for-loop here, whose index r would suggest row goes from one to row, so it scans through all the rows of a. MATLAB STRUCTURE AND USE 1. Nested for loop statement. Functions work in scripts in R2016b or later. m ) Simplify the interfaces, with nesting. Where several function definitions follow each other and the optional end keyword has not been used to terminate each function, the functions appear nested in the Structure panel, which is incorrect. Nested Loop in Java In this article, you will learn about nested loops and how it works with the help of examples. - Switch - case commands - Nested lops - break command - continue command 2 e l e c t r i c a l e n g g t u t o r i a l. So back to your original script Vic, the strict answer is that your script is not compatible with Matlab, therefore your use of nested functions in that way is not supported :) However, I notice that functions defined at the command line in Octave *do* support nested functions. There are also a lot of built-in functions to initialise matrices, etc.